With an unlimited collection of databases to choose between available in the market, customers can incessantly mull over PostgreSQL vs SQL Server to iron out the simpler choice for his or her use case. Organizations that leverage PostgreSQL for his or her operations would possibly wish to transfer to a database like Microsoft SQL Server because it essentially caters to other information warehousing answers, ecommerce, and different strains of commercial.

Traditionally, Microsoft SQL Server has been a favourite for organizations that rely on different Microsoft merchandise, however PostgreSQL has made speedy strides to upward push to the highest of the area of interest now not handiest on account of some great benefits of going open-source but in addition for its energetic neighborhood of customers and at hand options.

That is what brings us to this dialogue. Evaluating PostgreSQL and SQL Server will will let you higher perceive the conceivable benefits and trade-offs of the 2 programs, and which one is best suited on your aim.

Let’s dig in!

What Is PostgreSQL?

The PostgreSQL logo, showing the text below a stylized blue elephant head outlined in black and white.
PostgreSQL emblem (Symbol Supply: Uberconf)

PostgreSQL has established itself as an enterprise-class, complicated open-source database that helps each JSON (non-relational) and SQL (relational) querying. This tough and solid database control method has been subsidized through over thirty years of energetic neighborhood building that has contributed to its popularity for integrity, reliability, resilience, efficiency, and correctness.

PostgreSQL is used as the principle information warehouse or information retailer for quite a lot of cellular, internet, analytics, and geospatial packages. PostgreSQL additionally boasts a wealthy historical past of supporting complicated information sorts at the side of efficiency optimization recurrently discovered throughout its industrial database opposite numbers, like Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle.

On best of being unfastened and open-source, PostgreSQL could also be extremely extensible. For example, you’ll generate customized purposes, outline your information sorts, or even write code from quite a lot of programming languages with no need to recompile your database!

Historical past

Right here’s a temporary evaluation of PostgreSQL over the years:

  • Ingres used to be first evolved in 1977.
  • Michael Stonebraker and his pals evolved Postgres in 1986.
  • In 1990, fortify for PL/ pgSQL and ACID compliance used to be added to PostgreSQL.
  • NYCPUG (New York Town PostgreSQL Consumer Workforce) joined the PgUS (United States PostgreSQL Affiliation) again in 2013.
  • In 2014, the PGconf ushered in a brand new generation for PostgreSQL customers.

Primary Options

Now, let’s transfer on to check out some options of PostgreSQL that make it such an indispensable software on the market:

  • Requirements compliance and reliability: PostgreSQL’s write-ahead logging lets in it to face out as a extremely fault-tolerant database. PostgreSQL could also be ACID-compliant and offers complete fortify for perspectives, overseas keys, triggers, joins, and saved procedures, in quite a lot of languages. It comprises maximum SQL: 2008 information sorts, together with BOOLEAN, NUMERIC, INTEGER, DATE, VARCHAR, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL, and CHAR.
  • Tough extensions: PostgreSQL homes tough characteristic units comparable to point-in-time restoration, multi-version concurrency (MVCC), tablespaces, granular get admission to controls, and on-line/sizzling backups. PostgreSQL could also be locale-aware for case sensitivity, sorting, and formatting. It’s extremely scalable in each the amount of knowledge it might organize and within the choice of simultaneous customers that may be accommodated.
  • Open-source license: You’ll be able to avail of the PostgreSQL supply code underneath an open-source license, supplying you with the liberty to switch, use, and put into effect it as you notice have compatibility, with none price. On best of this, PostgreSQL incurs no licensing value, which removes the danger of over-deployment. PostgreSQL’s neighborhood of fans and individuals ceaselessly to find fixes and insects, lending to the whole safety of the database method.

Use Circumstances

PostgreSQL’s versatility lets in it to be leveraged in an unlimited vary of use instances like:

  • Federated hub database: PostgreSQL’s JSON fortify and overseas information wrappers permit it to hyperlink with different information shops — together with NoSQL information sorts — and function a federated hub for polyglot database programs.
  • Normal-purpose OLTP database: Huge enterprises and startups each use PostgreSQL as the principle information retailer to fortify their internet-scale packages, merchandise, and answers.
  • Geospatial database: PostgreSQL helps geographic items when used with the PostGIS extension. It can be used as a geospatial information retailer for geographic data programs (GIS) and location-based products and services.
  • LAPP open-source stack: PostgreSQL too can run dynamic apps and internet sites as a part of a powerful selection to the LAMP stack. LAPP stands for Linux, Apache, PostgreSQL, Perl, PHP, and Python.

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What Is SQL Server?

The SQL Server logo, showing the text next to a stylized gray and Microsoft deep red dynamic grid symbol.
SQL Server emblem (Symbol Supply: Software Engineering Stack Exchange)

SQL Server used to be evolved through Microsoft as a relational database control method that boasts an extended historical past, thirty-two years, to be exact. Microsoft SQL Server is regarded as a tool product with the principle serve as of retrieving and collating information as asked through different tool packages.

Those packages would possibly both run on a distinct laptop throughout a community or at the similar laptop. Microsoft SQL Server has noticed a large number of updates through the years, to develop into probably the most very best supported and one of the reputed RDBMSs available in the market lately.

SQL Server owes a big chew of its reputation to its maker, Microsoft. When MS SQL Server used to be in its nascent level, Microsoft had already established itself as a tech large.

SQL Server has controlled to make a mark as a database control method with its wide selection of packages and gear that simplify running with information. Its complete graphical person interface (GUI) lets in intuitive and simple paintings with the database whilst permitting you to generate statistics on your stories.

Historical past

Here’s a temporary evaluation of Microsoft SQL Server through the years:

  • The evolution of SQL Server started in 1988 when Microsoft collaborated with Sybase and Ashton-Tate to broaden database repairs and introduction tool that would supply an impetus to Microsoft’s trade database marketplace.
  • SQL Server 1.0 used to be rolled out in 1989. Again then, it leveraged the method administrator facility (SAF) to generate databases. It didn’t have any documentation, but it surely nonetheless allowed customers to run SQL queries and set parameters. The primary code snippet for Microsoft SQL Server used to be penned through Sybase.
  • Progressively, more recent variations had been launched with extra enhancements and contours. SQL Server 2019, or Aries is the most recent addition to a pantheon of complete variations because it makes a speciality of making the database options much more intuitive to make use of. This comprises giant information cluster choices, giving customers the selection to paintings with large information units.

Primary Options

Sufficient historical past communicate. Let’s check out a few pivotal options that make SQL Server the sort of nice catch:

  • Tough safety platform: SQL Server lets in you to give protection to your information in movement and at leisure with integrated options for information coverage, information classification, signals, and tracking. With SQL Server, you’ll simply encrypt delicate information and carry out wealthy computations on encrypted information, and make allowance custom designed role-based information get admission to whole with complicated row filtering.
  • Trade-leading efficiency: SQL Server boasts record-breaking efficiency on Linux and Home windows because it persistently leads throughout TPC-H information warehousing workload, TPC-E OLTP workload, and real-world software efficiency benchmarks. You’ll be able to additionally use SQL Server’s in-memory database features comparable to memory-optimized tempdb and protracted reminiscence fortify to support efficiency on your mission-critical workloads.
  • Intelligence throughout your entire information with giant information clusters: SQL Server permits you to acquire precious insights from your entire information through querying information throughout all your information property — Azure SQL Database, SQL Server, Teradata, MongoDB, Azure Cosmos DB, and plenty of extra — with no need to duplicate or transfer information. You’ll be able to even construct a shared information lake through combining each unstructured and structured information in SQL Server and gaining access to the knowledge both via Spark or T-SQL.

Use Circumstances

SQL Server’s extensibility and function permit it to be leveraged in an unlimited vary of use instances like:

  • Replication products and services: SQL Server replication products and services are used by SQL Server to harmonize and mirror database items, both as a subset of the items provide or of their entirety. Replication products and services adhere to a subscriber/writer type, i.e. the adjustments are despatched out through one database server (writer) and are amassed through others (subscribers).
  • Notification products and services: Notification products and services had been initially launched as a post-release add-on for SQL Server 2000. This is a mechanism for growing data-driven adjustments, that are then despatched to the notification products and services subscribers.
  • Gadget studying products and services: SQL Server system studying products and services function inside the SQL Server example, letting other folks carry out information analytics and system studying with no need to transport information around the community or be hindered through the reminiscence in their computer systems.
  • Research Products and services: SQL Server research products and services (SSAS) provides information mining and OLAP features for SQL Server databases. The OLAP engine gives fortify for relational on-line analytical processing (ROLAP), multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP), and hybrid on-line analytical processing (HOLAP) garage modes for information. SQL Server research products and services additionally fortify XML for the research usual as the elemental communique protocol.

PostgreSQL vs SQL Server: Head-to-Head Comparability

Now that we’ve got an concept concerning the salient facets of SQL Server and PostgreSQL, let’s dig into the variations between the 2. You’ll be able to use the standards discussed underneath to spot which database control method fits your wishes very best.


PostgreSQL gives a large collection of answers to make sure top availability for customers, together with write-ahead log delivery, shared-disk failover, information partitioning, and quite a lot of replication strategies. Equipment like EDB Postgres Failover Supervisor supply automated failover to make sure top availability through tracking for and figuring out database screw ups.

However, SQL Server comprises quite a lot of top availability gear comparable to log delivery, failover clusters, and replication. SQL Server’s availability teams that paintings round-the-clock supply automated failover when particular prerequisites are met. Alternatively, this providing can handiest be accessed in SQL Server’s venture version.

Knowledge & Desk Construction

PostgreSQL supplies the PL/pgSQL procedural programming language to its customers for simplicity. Further functionalities to plain SQL in PostgreSQL come with user-defined sorts, customized modules, extensions, JSON fortify, and further choices for triggers and different functionalities.

SQL Server makes use of T-SQL, which bears resemblance to plain SQL. T-SQL comprises further fortify for information and string processing, procedural programming, and native variables.

If you wish to higher know how the programs cache and procedure requests, PostgreSQL isolates processes through treating them as separate OS processes. Each and every database has a separate reminiscence and runs its procedure. This makes tracking and control really easy, however on the similar time, it makes scaling a number of databases tougher.

SQL Server makes use of a buffer pool that may be restricted or greater according to processing wishes. The entire paintings is performed in one pool, with out a a number of pages, in contrast to PostgreSQL.

Each PostgreSQL and SQL Server supply fortify for brief tables because it permits you to retailer intermediate effects from branched complicated common sense and sophisticated procedures. Brief tables can lend a hand support database group and function through setting apart middleman data from the crucial as effectively.


When builders regulate other portions of an SQL database, the adjustments happen at other issues of the method and will also be onerous to trace, learn, and organize. Due to this fact, repairs must additionally contain defragmentation — the method of collating the up to date database through assigning indexes, producing new pages, and revisiting the construction. The databases can then unlock the disk house that’s now not applied correctly in order that a database can run at a quicker tempo.

PostgreSQL scans the tables of a knowledge layer to search for empty rows and removes needless components. Via doing so, the method liberates the disk house. Alternatively, this system wishes a large number of CPU and will have an effect on the applying’s efficiency.

However, SQL Server supplies an effective rubbish collector that doesn’t generate greater than 15-20% of overhead. Technically, builders too can run rubbish creditors ceaselessly, as a result of it’s that efficient. To summarize, SQL Server gives extra defragmentation strategies than PostgreSQL.


The best way a database tackles indexes is a testomony to its usability as a result of indexes are used to pinpoint information with out in search of a specific row. You’ll be able to additionally use indexes to check with a number of columns or rows. You’ll be able to assign the similar index to information, provide them somewhere else within the database, and acquire these types of items with a unmarried seek.

PostgreSQL helps index-based desk group, however the early variations didn’t use automated index updates. It additionally permits you to glance up many indexes in one seek, because of this that you’ll uncover a large number of data.

SQL Server supplies wealthy computerized capability for index control. They may be able to be arranged in clusters and maintain the correct row order with out handbook involvement. SQL Server additionally helps partial indexes and multiple-index searches.


PostgreSQL doesn’t be offering a integrated process scheduler, in contrast to different SQL databases. Repetitive duties want exterior gear like cron, pgAgent, or pg_cron on Linux, and SQLBackupAndFTP or Job Scheduler on Home windows.

Duties in SQL Server, alternatively, will also be simply scheduled by means of SQL Server Control Studio.

PostgreSQL has well-developed multi-version concurrency regulate (MVCC) to take on a number of procedures on the similar time. MVCC gives snapshots of database data to keep away from exhibiting inconsistencies led to through simultaneous transactions or locking of knowledge that takes position in different database programs. PostgreSQL leverages serializable snapshot isolation (SSI) to make sure transaction isolation.

SQL Server has a much less evolved multi-version concurrency regulate method and is determined by locking of knowledge to keep away from mistakes from simultaneous transactions, through default. SQL Server additionally gives an constructive concurrency characteristic, which assumes that such problems happen hardly ever. So, versus locking a row, it’s verified towards a cached edition to search out if any exchange has taken position.

Partitioning and Sharding

When efficiency beneficial properties are crucial for better databases and also you’ve maxed out your saved procedures, and your {hardware} could also be upgraded, you would have to distribute the paintings throughout quite a lot of servers. Right here’s when partitioning and sharding come into play.

Whilst each sharding and partitioning are necessarily about breaking a big dataset into smaller subsets, sharding signifies that the knowledge is unfold throughout a number of computer systems whilst partitioning doesn’t.

From edition 10.0, PostgreSQL helps declarative partitioning — partitioning through vary, checklist, or hash.

MS SQL Server helps horizontal partitioning — splitting a desk with many rows into a number of tables with lesser rows.

MS SQL Server additionally helps sharding via federation. “Federated partitioned perspectives” are perspectives the place tables are unfold throughout other servers to stability the processing load.

To retrieve the information from the servers, you wish to have positive instructions. Those instructions are referred to as dispensed partitioned perspectives. They use standard SQL statements, at the side of the key phrase UNION, to attract information from all of the dispensed servers.

Likewise, DML statements (INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE) can be used when particular laws are noticed at the underlying tables. Additionally, be aware that federated partitioned perspectives are handiest supported on venture editions.

Even though federated partitioned perspectives will also be applied on some other version as there’s no distinguishing syntax for them, they gained’t be identified as federated partitioned perspectives. The foundations to acknowledge the view as partitioned throughout servers are handiest to be had with venture editions.

The usage of this system of partitioning, there’s in most cases an build up in efficiency through 20% to 30% in maximum packages. Therefore, it’s an excessively useful gizmo if what you are promoting manages a large number of information.


Whilst partitioning is splitting the database into smaller subsets and distributing the partitioned tables into other nodes, replication is copying the database throughout a number of databases to supply a handy guide a rough glance and no more reaction time.

PostgreSQL gives primary-secondary replication. This will also be asynchronous or synchronous. Write-ahead logs (WALs) permit for sharing adjustments with the copy nodes, therefore enabling asynchronous replication.

The opposite types of replications principally come with logical replication, streaming replication, and bodily replication.

  • Logical replication follows a put up and subscribe type. Adjustments are according to the id of the knowledge replication, like its important key, reasonably than its bodily location.
  • Streaming replication necessarily streams the WALs as quickly because the document is created, thus enabling standby servers to be briefly up to date, as a substitute of looking forward to the document to be stuffed.
  • Finally, bodily replication is in most cases applied with information and directories, with out a regard for the contents inside the bodily location. PostgreSQL doesn’t be offering multi-primary replication natively, however it may be performed with the assistance of different third-party gear.

SQL Server replication duplicates information from a writer server to a subscriber. It may be asynchronous or asynchronous relying at the SQL Server version. It gives 3 kinds of replications, specifically: transactional replication, snapshot replication, and merge replication.

  • Transactional replication is generally applied for server-to-server environments, the place adjustments are delivered from the writer to the subscriber as they occur.
  • Merge replication is in most cases applied in eventualities the place conflicts would possibly happen, for server-to-client environments, or the place information will also be modified and tracked on both the subscriber or writer and is therefore synchronized.
  • Snapshot replication is applied when information is up to date once in a while, doesn’t wish to be altered incrementally, or the place information is duplicated precisely as it sounds as if at a particular second. Moreover, the venture version gives peer-to-peer replication instead way to multi-primary node replication.

Language & Syntax

PostgreSQL is written in C language, and MS SQL is written in C and C++. When it comes to language binding, PostgreSQL is so easy to make use of and hook up with on account of its exterior API libpq, which could be very well-designed and documented.

Alternatively, SQL Server exterior language bindings might rely on a number of different components. You could wish to set up additional drivers or create categories to retailer the knowledge that’s queried; thus you’d have to grasp what the knowledge looks as if at assemble time. You possibly can most definitely need to check with the documentation, and it might be reasonably time-consuming to practice up.

In terms of procedural language options, each PostgreSQL and SQL Server supply tough fortify. PostgreSQL helps the JSON information sort and customers can simply use Python, Java, PHP, Perl, and R with SQL as they’re subsidized through the procedural language characteristic.

Whilst SQL Server does supply fortify, this selection is but to be advanced, as there are slight insects that happen, and it’ll take a while to put into effect because it’s gradual. The person must assemble the code right into a .dll document first.

In PostgreSQL, there’s no wish to create a .dll document first. PostgreSQL additionally supplies an enormous choice of common expressions (regex) as a basis for analytical paintings.

MS SQL Server relatively has lesser regex and helps positive instructions like substring, and trend index, which might not be as excellent as PostgreSQL.


In terms of efficiency, PostgreSQL trumps SQL Server in different tactics. We touched upon partitioning, and whilst each PostgreSQL and SQL Server be offering partitioning, PostgreSQL gives it without spending a dime, with extra potency.

PostgreSQL additionally gives higher concurrency, which is the most important characteristic the place a number of processes can get admission to and change shared information on the similar time. The MVCC function of PostgreSQL guarantees a lesser probability of impasse, handiest blocking off if two queries attempt to regulate the similar row on the similar time and serialize the updates made to that row.

The MVCC lock obtained for querying information doesn’t battle with the locks obtained for writing information. This minimizes lock rivalry and offers higher efficiency in multiuser environments.

However, SQL Server has an underdeveloped concurrency, and a few processes may also be deadlocked. Versus the MVCC characteristic, every time a row is up to date, a brand new edition of the row is created as a substitute of overwriting the similar row and each are maintained. Progressively, the older variations transfer right into a method database referred to as tempdb. Alternatively, its concurrency has an extended method to move.

PostgreSQL additionally gives indexing fortify for a number of extensions, which enhances the efficiency of the database.

However, SQL servers are but to support on their indexing implementation, they’re but to incorporate arrays — one of the used variable sorts.


PostgreSQL used to be launched underneath the PostgreSQL License, a liberal open-source license. The PostgreSQL International Building Workforce stays dedicated to creating PostgreSQL to be had as unfastened and open-source tool eternally. There are not any plans to change or launch PostgreSQL underneath a distinct license.

MS SQL Server used to be launched underneath a industrial license as part of Microsoft merchandise. In early 2016, the database used to be made to be had as a unfastened software for builders, but it surely handiest helps one processor and 1GB of extreme reminiscence. Whilst it’s unfastened, it lacks a number of options you could want for a trade. You could wish to pay $899 in step with server if you happen to require extra servers. In recent years, the SQL Server venture version prices $13,748.


The power of the database method to proceed to serve as effectively when information is greater to satisfy a person’s want with out compromising on its efficiency is named scalability.

PostgreSQL gives many options on the subject of scalability and will make use of a number of CPU cores to parallelly put into effect queries briefly.

SQL Server too can use cores, on the other hand, the usual edition is restricted to twenty-four cores of CPU. The venture edition lets in for the use of limitless CPU cores. SQL Server additionally possesses a hyper-scale characteristic, the place you’ll decide the decrease and higher limits permitting you to scale downwards and upwards as in step with the necessities.

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With the upward thrust of knowledge robbery, hacking, and piracy, security does certainly develop into crucial requirement in database programs. Alternatively, each SQL Server and PostgreSQL supply very good information encryption and authentication.

Authentication Strategies

At the server-side, PostgreSQL gives complicated authentication strategies together with light-weight listing get admission to protocol (LDAP) and pluggable authentication module (PAM), which probably cut back the assault floor of the PostgreSQL database servers. Different server-level safety improvements to PostgreSQL come with PostgreSQL server concentrate cope with, host-based authentication, and certificates authentication.

In MS SQL Server, there are two server-level safety enhancement options: Home windows authentication mode and mixed-mode which incorporates an authentication procedure through each Home windows Server and MS SQL Server. The protection type of MS SQL Server is a good integration between the Home windows authentication mode of Home windows Server and the database.

Knowledge Encryption

PostgreSQL supplies information encryption and lets you use protected sockets layer (SSL) certificate when your information is touring in the course of the internet or public community highways. It additionally permits you to put into effect Jstomer certificates authentication gear as an choice. As well as, you’ll use cryptogenic purposes to retailer encrypted information in PostgreSQL that fortify each symmetric-key and public-key encryptions.

In MS SQL Server, the to be had information encryption options come with clear information encryption (TDE), all the time encrypted, and column-level encryption. TDE makes use of the complicated encryption usual (AES) set of rules for encrypting bodily information, which come with each information and log information. The all the time encrypted characteristic permits you to encrypt positive columns in each states, at leisure or in movement (i.e. the knowledge stays encrypted in reminiscence as effectively).

Consumer-Stage Privileges

Additional, you’ll organize other customers at the side of their permissions (learn, write) in each PostgreSQL and SQL Server.

PostgreSQL comprises user-level privileges as function assignments, table-level privileges by means of roles, and function inheritance. The auditing choice permits you to evaluation customers’ and teams’ information get admission to actions on your database, which gives a layer of additional safety.

SQL Server achieves this by means of person teams and roles. Useful resource permissions are granted at once to the person account, and permissions are inherited from a father or mother useful resource.

You’ll be able to additionally determine concurrency problems, long-running queries, and common workload metrics through tracking and auditing actions in SQL Server.


Garage is among the key components of any database method’s efficiency. With the upward thrust of the servers’ processing energy and large-scale reminiscence fortify, it turns into virtually crucial for the databases to permit for extra garage features within the method.

PostgreSQL is an object-relational database, whilst Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database method. This implies PostgreSQL gives extra complicated information sorts and lets in object inheritance, despite the fact that it additionally makes running with PostgreSQL extra complicated. It has a unmarried ACID-compliant garage engine and initializes a brand new method procedure with its reminiscence allocation for every Jstomer connection. Therefore, with the rise of Jstomer connections on programs, extra reminiscence must be allotted.

SQL Server 2016 and above can use a most of 100 computer systems or digital machines with a most of 5 cases operating in step with laptop. Alternatively, this too is determined by its version. The venture version lets in for max bandwidth, therefore extra garage features could be granted. Whilst the most recent usual version lets in to be used of as much as 128GB of reminiscence, you’ll use limitless reminiscence within the venture edition.

Enhance & Neighborhood

PostgreSQL releases up to date variations ceaselessly without spending a dime. Just lately, The PostgreSQL International Building Workforce has released an update to all supported variations of the database method, fixing over 55 bugs reported during the last 3 months. PostgreSQL boasts an unlimited neighborhood of builders, third-party firms, and fans that offer fortify and likewise attempt to broaden the method through solving the reported insects.

SQL Server releases a brand new edition each few years. The fortify prices rely at the phrases and stipulations of the license. Microsoft SQL Server additionally has a fortify neighborhood, the place database analysts, builders, method directors, or someone within the platform can ask questions, or be told extra about SQL Server via podcasts and webcasts just like the SQL Server Radio with Man Glantser and Eitan Blumin, the place customers get to grasp so much in regards to the SQL Server and its compatibility with different Microsoft gear.

Each PostgreSQL and SQL Server will also be supplied with plugins. The pricing and compatibility rely at the plugin. Plugins will also be useful to regulate, blank, again up your database, or extra.

As an example, Adminer is a knowledge control software and can be utilized to regulate information in each PostgreSQL and MS SQL Server. A number of different database plugins can be utilized to support the potency of your database as effectively specifically: WP-Optimize, Higher Seek Exchange, WP Database Backup, to call a couple of. Whilst you improve any database method, there could be information migration prices, however that is standard for some other usual DBMS.

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PostgreSQL trojan horse discovery message (Symbol Supply: PostgreSQL)

Triggers & Occasions

PostgreSQL has quite a lot of complicated triggers you’ll make a choice from relying in your use case. Supported triggering occasions are AFTER, BEFORE, and INSTEAD OF, and they are able to be used for INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE occasions to control information. As discussed ahead of, PostgreSQL can run those triggers dynamically and doesn’t wish to assemble them right into a .dll document ahead of execution. The above purposes can be utilized to execute a fancy question when the cause will get invoked.

SQL Server gives quite a lot of triggers for several types of database occasions, specifically DML triggers, DDL triggers, and logon triggers:

  • DML triggers or information manipulation language triggers are triggers used to control information, through putting, updating, or deleting information.
  • DDL triggers are for information definition language (DDL) occasions, like growing, losing, or changing a database.
  • Logon triggers are used for logon occasions, like when a person consultation is established. Those triggers fireplace after a hit authentication and ahead of setting up the person consultation. They’re helpful for auditing and controlling login task.


Perspectives are necessarily digital tables that don’t retailer information bodily. They’re typically used for safety functions to restrict person get admission to to information. Each PostgreSQL and SQL Server fortify updatable perspectives.

Alternatively, in PostgreSQL, the updates don’t happen robotically until the next necessities are happy:

  • There must be a piece within the FROM clause within the question of that view. The segment will also be from a desk or any other updatable view.
  • There must be no window purposes, combination purposes, or set-returning purposes within the variety checklist.
  • The question mustn’t come with the instructions HAVING, LIMIT, DISTINCT, WITH, INTERSECT, EXCEPT, OFFSET or LIMIT on the best point.

Briefly, the perspectives created with easy queries will also be up to date while it’s virtually unattainable to replace those created with complicated queries. However, complicated perspectives will also be up to date through the usage of laws. Whilst PostgreSQL would possibly not give you the facility for operating materialized perspectives, it has a module referred to as matviews, which will lend a hand in rebuilding any materialized view.

In SQL Server, perspectives will also be robotically up to date, and each user-defined and system-defined perspectives are supported. Additionally, two desk perspectives are up to date on the similar time if they have got other keys and the replace commentary doesn’t contain multiple desk.

Moreover, the person can make the most of triggers to replace complicated perspectives. SQL Server additionally supplies amenities to run materialized perspectives sometimes called listed perspectives. In contrast to materialized perspectives in different relational databases, listed perspectives are synced to the underlying information and are thus up to date robotically.

Shortcomings of SQL Server and PostgreSQL

Whilst we’ve mentioned all of the main points on PostgreSQL and SQL Server, each have their drawbacks.

Whilst PostgreSQL is unfastened, it isn’t owned through a unmarried group. On account of that, it has struggled to search out footing a number of the plenty, regardless of being closely featured. PostgreSQL additionally makes a speciality of compatibility greater than pace. Thus, adjustments which are created for pace growth call for extra paintings.

However, SQL Server has incessantly been criticized for its deficient person interface. It has complicated efficiency tuning options and no local fortify for supply regulate. Should you’re the usage of it on your corporate, the venture edition might burn a hollow on your pocket. SQL Server 2019 venture version on my own prices $13,748 — that’s like 13 rooms price of Ikea furnishings! Additionally, the licensing will also be slightly difficult to understand and is ceaselessly converting.

If PostgreSQL and SQL Server aren’t slightly on your liking, you’ll check out MongoDB or MariaDB on your distinctive use case.

MongoDB is a document-oriented, free-to-use, cross-platform database program that may simply leverage JSON-like paperwork.

MariaDB, alternatively, is a commercially-supported fork of MySQL whose pluggable and purpose-built garage engines fortify workloads that typically required an unlimited number of other databases.

PostgreSQL vs SQL Server: Which Database Will have to You Make a selection?

Each PostgreSQL and SQL Server are broadly used relational databases, however who takes the cake? From the above comparisons, PostgreSQL trumps SQL Server in different eventualities. No longer handiest is it open-source and unfastened, but it surely additionally has a number of options which are simply to be had and will also be applied robotically, in contrast to Microsoft SQL Server.

Additionally, PostgreSQL has a extra appropriate concurrency control method. It may possibly brilliantly deal with instances the place a number of processes can get admission to and regulate shared information on the similar time.

If you’re operating a small trade, PostgreSQL generally is a appropriate selection for you because it’s unfastened and gives a number of options which are helpful to regulate the knowledge. It’s simple to put in and will also be applied in virtually a wide variety of running programs. Alternatively, for companies with an enormous funding within the Microsoft SQL Server stack, SQL Server has its advantages over PostgreSQL.
Comparing PostgreSQL and SQL Server will help you understand the advantages of the two systems, and which one is best suited for you.🤝 Let’s dive in! ✅Click to Tweet


All in all, each PostgreSQL and SQL Server are practical and multifaceted databases. Whilst PostgreSQL can be utilized for nearly any running method and is appropriate for small companies that require most capability, SQL Server is the most productive for enormous companies, particularly those who require using Microsoft merchandise.

On this article, we’ve coated the main variations between PostgreSQL and SQL Server, and their purposes. The “proper” selection will in the end come all the way down to how you intend to run what you are promoting.

Between PostgreSQL vs SQL Server, which database would you intend on the usage of on your subsequent challenge, and why? We’d love to listen to your ideas! Proportion them within the remark segment underneath.

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